Dream of the Rarebit Fiend

Dream of the Rarebit Fiend
Dream of the Rarebit Fiend 1905-01-28.jpg
January 28, 1905, Rarebit Fiend episode
Author(s)Winsor McCay
Launch dateSeptember 10, 1904 (1904-09-10)
End datec. 1925
Alternate name(s)
  • The Dream of a Lobster Fiend
  • Midsummer Day Dreams
  • It Was Only a Dream
  • Rarebit Reveries
Publisher(s)New York Herald
Preceded byLittle Sammy Sneeze
Followed byLittle Nemo

Dream of the Rarebit Fiend is a newspaper comic strip by American cartoonist Winsor McCay, begun September 10, 1904. It was McCay's second successful strip, after Little Sammy Sneeze secured him a position on the cartoon staff of the New York Herald. Rarebit Fiend was printed in the Evening Telegram, a newspaper published by the Herald. For contractual reasons, McCay signed the strip with the pen name "Silas".

The strip had no continuity or recurring characters, but a recurring theme: a character has a nightmare or other bizarre dream, usually after eating a Welsh rarebit—a cheese-on-toast dish. The character awakens in the closing panel and regrets having eaten the rarebit. The dreams often reveal unflattering sides of the dreamers' psyches—their phobias, hypocrisies, discomforts, and dark fantasies. This was in great contrast to the colorful fantasy dreams in McCay's signature strip, Little Nemo. Whereas children were Nemo's target audience, McCay aimed Rarebit Fiend at adults.

The popularity of Rarebit Fiend and Nemo led to McCay gaining a contract with William Randolph Hearst's chain of newspapers with a star's salary. His editor there thought McCay's highly skilled cartooning "serious, not funny", and had McCay give up comic strips in favor of editorial cartooning. McCay revived the strip in 1923–1925 as Rarebit Reveries, though few examples have survived.

A number of film adaptations of Rarebit Fiend have appeared, including Edwin S. Porter's live-action Dream of a Rarebit Fiend in 1906, and four pioneering animated films by McCay himself: How a Mosquito Operates in 1912, and 1921's Bug Vaudeville, The Pet, and The Flying House. The strip is said to have anticipated a number of recurring ideas in popular culture, such as giant characters damaging cities—as later popularized by King Kong and Godzilla.

Provably Fair Primedice offers state of the art verification which allows our users to check the integrity of every roll and confirm they are not manipulated. Our random numbers are generated through the use of two seeds, a server seed, and your client seed. The server seed is created before you specify your client seed, ensuring that a server seed purposely in our favor cannot be generated. Together, along with the nonce (# of bets made with seed pair), the seeds are used to create a provably fair roll number within the 0-99.99 range. Seeds In the provably fair tab, users can change and verify seeds used. To do this, click "Rerandomize" near the top of the provably fair tab. Before you specify your own seed, you are shown the SHA256 hash of the server seed that will be used alongside whichever seed you pick. Changing the client seed used will also reveal the previous server seed, which you can then verify was the seed we hashed and showed you. Roll Numbers To create a roll number, Primedice uses a multi-step process to create a roll number 0-99.99. Both client and server seeds and a nonce are combined with hmac-sha512(server_seed, client_seed-nonce) which will generate a hex string. The nonce is the # of bets you made with the current seed pair. First five characters are taken from the hex string to create a roll number that is 0-1,048,575. If the roll number is over 999,999, the proccess is repeated with the next five characters skipping the previous set. This is done until a number less than 1,000,000 is achieved. In the astronomically unlikely event that all possible 5 character combinations are greater, 99.99 is used as the roll number. The resulting number 0-999,999 is applied a modulus of 10^4, to obtain a roll number 0-9999, and divided by 10^2 to result a 0-99.99 number. How to Verify You can use a third party tool to verify roll numbers or use the following Node.js script that recreates the proccess described above. It will output your roll number.


           //the seed pair itself
           var clientSeed = "your client seed"; //dont forget to exclude the dash and the nonce!
           var serverSeed = "your server seed";
           //bet made with seed pair (excluding current bet)
           var nonce      = 0;
           //crypto lib for hmac function
           var crypto = require('crypto');
           var roll = function(key, text) {
               //create HMAC using server seed as key and client seed as message
               var hash = crypto.createHmac('sha512', key).update(text).digest('hex');
               var index = 0;
               var lucky = parseInt(hash.substring(index * 5, index * 5 + 5), 16);
               //keep grabbing characters from the hash while greater than 
               while (lucky >= Math.pow(10, 6)) {
                   index++;
                   lucky = parseInt(hash.substring(index * 5, index * 5 + 5), 16);
                   //if we reach the end of the hash, just default to highest number
                   if (index * 5 + 5 > 128) {
                       lucky = 99.99;
                       break;
                   }
               }
               lucky %= Math.pow(10, 4);
               lucky /= Math.pow(10, 2);
               return lucky;
           }
           console.log(roll(serverSeed, clientSeed+'-'+nonce));

Provably Fair Primedice offers state of the art verification which allows our users to check the integrity of every roll and confirm they are not manipulated. Our random numbers are generated through the use of two seeds, a server seed, and your client seed. The server seed is created before you specify your client seed, ensuring that a server seed purposely in our favor cannot be generated. Together, along with the nonce (# of bets made with seed pair), the seeds are used to create a provably fair roll number within the 0-99.99 range. Seeds In the provably fair tab, users can change and verify seeds used. To do this, click "Rerandomize" near the top of the provably fair tab. Before you specify your own seed, you are shown the SHA256 hash of the server seed that will be used alongside whichever seed you pick. Changing the client seed used will also reveal the previous server seed, which you can then verify was the seed we hashed and showed you. Roll Numbers To create a roll number, Primedice uses a multi-step process to create a roll number 0-99.99. Both client and server seeds and a nonce are combined with hmac-sha512(server_seed, client_seed-nonce) which will generate a hex string. The nonce is the # of bets you made with the current seed pair. First five characters are taken from the hex string to create a roll number that is 0-1,048,575. If the roll number is over 999,999, the proccess is repeated with the next five characters skipping the previous set. This is done until a number less than 1,000,000 is achieved. In the astronomically unlikely event that all possible 5 character combinations are greater, 99.99 is used as the roll number. The resulting number 0-999,999 is applied a modulus of 10^4, to obtain a roll number 0-9999, and divided by 10^2 to result a 0-99.99 number. How to Verify You can use a third party tool to verify roll numbers or use the following Node.js script that recreates the proccess described above. It will output your roll number.


           //the seed pair itself
           var clientSeed = "your client seed"; //dont forget to exclude the dash and the nonce!
           var serverSeed = "your server seed";
           //bet made with seed pair (excluding current bet)
           var nonce      = 0;
           //crypto lib for hmac function
           var crypto = require('crypto');
           var roll = function(key, text) {
               //create HMAC using server seed as key and client seed as message
               var hash = crypto.createHmac('sha512', key).update(text).digest('hex');
               var index = 0;
               var lucky = parseInt(hash.substring(index * 5, index * 5 + 5), 16);
               //keep grabbing characters from the hash while greater than 
               while (lucky >= Math.pow(10, 6)) {
                   index++;
                   lucky = parseInt(hash.substring(index * 5, index * 5 + 5), 16);
                   //if we reach the end of the hash, just default to highest number
                   if (index * 5 + 5 > 128) {
                       lucky = 99.99;
                       break;
                   }
               }
               lucky %= Math.pow(10, 4);
               lucky /= Math.pow(10, 2);
               return lucky;
           }
           console.log(roll(serverSeed, clientSeed+'-'+nonce));

Provably Fair Primedice offers state of the art verification which allows our users to check the integrity of every roll and confirm they are not manipulated. Our random numbers are generated through the use of two seeds, a server seed, and your client seed. The server seed is created before you specify your client seed, ensuring that a server seed purposely in our favor cannot be generated. Together, along with the nonce (# of bets made with seed pair), the seeds are used to create a provably fair roll number within the 0-99.99 range. Seeds In the provably fair tab, users can change and verify seeds used. To do this, click "Rerandomize" near the top of the provably fair tab. Before you specify your own seed, you are shown the SHA256 hash of the server seed that will be used alongside whichever seed you pick. Changing the client seed used will also reveal the previous server seed, which you can then verify was the seed we hashed and showed you. Roll Numbers To create a roll number, Primedice uses a multi-step process to create a roll number 0-99.99. Both client and server seeds and a nonce are combined with hmac-sha512(server_seed, client_seed-nonce) which will generate a hex string. The nonce is the # of bets you made with the current seed pair. First five characters are taken from the hex string to create a roll number that is 0-1,048,575. If the roll number is over 999,999, the proccess is repeated with the next five characters skipping the previous set. This is done until a number less than 1,000,000 is achieved. In the astronomically unlikely event that all possible 5 character combinations are greater, 99.99 is used as the roll number. The resulting number 0-999,999 is applied a modulus of 10^4, to obtain a roll number 0-9999, and divided by 10^2 to result a 0-99.99 number. How to Verify You can use a third party tool to verify roll numbers or use the following Node.js script that recreates the proccess described above. It will output your roll number.


           //the seed pair itself
           var clientSeed = "your client seed"; //dont forget to exclude the dash and the nonce!
           var serverSeed = "your server seed";
           //bet made with seed pair (excluding current bet)
           var nonce      = 0;
           //crypto lib for hmac function
           var crypto = require('crypto');
           var roll = function(key, text) {
               //create HMAC using server seed as key and client seed as message
               var hash = crypto.createHmac('sha512', key).update(text).digest('hex');
               var index = 0;
               var lucky = parseInt(hash.substring(index * 5, index * 5 + 5), 16);
               //keep grabbing characters from the hash while greater than 
               while (lucky >= Math.pow(10, 6)) {
                   index++;
                   lucky = parseInt(hash.substring(index * 5, index * 5 + 5), 16);
                   //if we reach the end of the hash, just default to highest number
                   if (index * 5 + 5 > 128) {
                       lucky = 99.99;
                       break;
                   }
               }
               lucky %= Math.pow(10, 4);
               lucky /= Math.pow(10, 2);
               return lucky;
           }
           console.log(roll(serverSeed, clientSeed+'-'+nonce));

Provably Fair Primedice offers state of the art verification which allows our users to check the integrity of every roll and confirm they are not manipulated. Our random numbers are generated through the use of two seeds, a server seed, and your client seed. The server seed is created before you specify your client seed, ensuring that a server seed purposely in our favor cannot be generated. Together, along with the nonce (# of bets made with seed pair), the seeds are used to create a provably fair roll number within the 0-99.99 range. Seeds In the provably fair tab, users can change and verify seeds used. To do this, click "Rerandomize" near the top of the provably fair tab. Before you specify your own seed, you are shown the SHA256 hash of the server seed that will be used alongside whichever seed you pick. Changing the client seed used will also reveal the previous server seed, which you can then verify was the seed we hashed and showed you. Roll Numbers To create a roll number, Primedice uses a multi-step process to create a roll number 0-99.99. Both client and server seeds and a nonce are combined with hmac-sha512(server_seed, client_seed-nonce) which will generate a hex string. The nonce is the # of bets you made with the current seed pair. First five characters are taken from the hex string to create a roll number that is 0-1,048,575. If the roll number is over 999,999, the proccess is repeated with the next five characters skipping the previous set. This is done until a number less than 1,000,000 is achieved. In the astronomically unlikely event that all possible 5 character combinations are greater, 99.99 is used as the roll number. The resulting number 0-999,999 is applied a modulus of 10^4, to obtain a roll number 0-9999, and divided by 10^2 to result a 0-99.99 number. How to Verify You can use a third party tool to verify roll numbers or use the following Node.js script that recreates the proccess described above. It will output your roll number.


           //the seed pair itself
           var clientSeed = "your client seed"; //dont forget to exclude the dash and the nonce!
           var serverSeed = "your server seed";
           //bet made with seed pair (excluding current bet)
           var nonce      = 0;
           //crypto lib for hmac function
           var crypto = require('crypto');
           var roll = function(key, text) {
               //create HMAC using server seed as key and client seed as message
               var hash = crypto.createHmac('sha512', key).update(text).digest('hex');
               var index = 0;
               var lucky = parseInt(hash.substring(index * 5, index * 5 + 5), 16);
               //keep grabbing characters from the hash while greater than 
               while (lucky >= Math.pow(10, 6)) {
                   index++;
                   lucky = parseInt(hash.substring(index * 5, index * 5 + 5), 16);
                   //if we reach the end of the hash, just default to highest number
                   if (index * 5 + 5 > 128) {
                       lucky = 99.99;
                       break;
                   }
               }
               lucky %= Math.pow(10, 4);
               lucky /= Math.pow(10, 2);
               return lucky;
           }
           console.log(roll(serverSeed, clientSeed+'-'+nonce));

Legacy

Poster of King King standing on the Empire State Building
Giants damaging cities and other ideas have become a part of pop culture.

Rarebit Fiend set up a formula which McCay was to use in the better-known Little Nemo. A large number of the Nemo strips used ideas recycled from Rarebit Fiend, such as the October 31, 1907, "walking bed" episode, which was used in the July 26, 1908, episode of Little Nemo.[1]

Comics scholar Jeet Heer called Rarebit Fiend "perhaps the most bizarre newspaper feature in American history".[2] Merkl notes examples of the strip presaging ideas and scenes in later media: the strip includes scenes in which a man kicks a dog, slaps a woman, beats a blind man, and throws another woman out a window, as in Luis Buñuel's film L'Age d'Or (1930);[3] and giant characters let loose in the big city, climbing and damaging buildings and subway trains, as in King Kong (1933).[4] The strip for March 9, 1907, in which a child's bedroom becomes a lion-infested jungle, is compared by Merkl to the 1950 Ray Bradbury story "The Veldt",[5] and he compares the strip from September 26, 1908, depicting a stretchable face, to Salvador Dalí's surrealist painting "Soft self-portrait with fried bacon" (1941) and the cosmetic surgeries in Terry Gilliam's Brazil.[6] Stephen R. Bissette compares a strip featuring elevators flying from buildings and other scenes to the 2005 Tim Burton take on Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.[7]

The strip was most likely an influence on episodes of Frank King's early comic strip Bobby Make-Believe. Many scholars believe that Carl Barks, a professed fan of Little Nemo, was likely exposed to Rarebit Fiend, which appeared in The San Francisco Examiner, which Barks read growing up. Several episodes of Barks's Donald Duck strips appear to have taken their subjects from Rarebit Fiend. Many scenes from animated films by Tex Avery from between 1943 and 1954 are said to show clearly a Rarebit Fiend influence.[8] Science fiction illustrator Frank R. Paul painted a number of pulp magazine covers influenced by Rarebit Fiend.[9]

Art Spiegelman paid parodic homage to Rarebit Fiend in his 1974 strip "Real Dream".[10] In 1991, Rick Veitch began producing short comics based on his dreams. Beginning in 1994, he put out twenty-one issues of Roarin' Rick's Rare Bit Fiends from his own King Hell Press.[11]

References

  1. ^ Merkl 2007b, pp. 495–496.
  2. ^ Heer 2006.
  3. ^ Merkl 2007b, pp. 530–531.
  4. ^ Merkl 2007b, p. 531.
  5. ^ Merkl 2007a, p. 261.
  6. ^ Merkl 2007a, p. 55.
  7. ^ Bissette 2007; Dover editors 1973, p. ix.
  8. ^ Merkl 2007b, p. 500.
  9. ^ Merkl 2007b, p. 501.
  10. ^ Young 2000.
  11. ^ Markstein 2007.

Works cited

Books

  • Barrier, Michael (2003). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516729-0.
  • Berenbaum, May R. (2009). The Earwig's Tail: A Modern Bestiary of Multi-Legged Legends. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03540-9.
  • Bukatman, Scott (2012). The Poetics of Slumberland: Animated Spirits and the Animating Spirit. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-95150-1.
  • Canemaker, John (2005). Winsor McCay: His Life and Art (Revised ed.). Abrams Books. ISBN 978-0-8109-5941-5.
  • Castelli, Alfredo (2007). "A dreamer with his feet planted firmly on the ground". In Merkl, Ulrich (ed.). The Complete Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (1904–1913) by Winsor McCay 'Silas' (.doc). Catalog of episodes & text of the book: Ulrich Merkl. pp. 549–551. ISBN 978-3-00-020751-8. (on included DVD)
  • Chute, Hillary; Devoken, Marianne (2012). "Comic Books and Graphic Novels". In Glover, David; McCracken, Scott (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to Popular Fiction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 175–195. ISBN 978-0-521-51337-1.
  • Dover editors (1973). Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-0-486-21347-7.
  • Eagan, Daniel (2010). America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide To The Landmark Movies In The National Film Registry. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-2977-3.
  • Goldmark, Daniel (2007). "Before Willie: Reconstructing Music and the Animated Cartoon of the 1920s". In Goldmark, Daniel; Kramer, Lawrence (eds.). Beyond the Soundtrack: Representing Music in Cinema. University of California Press. pp. 225–245. ISBN 978-0-520-25070-3.
  • Gutjahr, Paul C.; Benton, Megan (2001). Illuminating Letters: Typography and Literary Interpretation. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-288-2.
  • Harvey, Robert C. (1994). The Art of the Funnies: An Aesthetic History. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-0-87805-674-3.
  • Merkl, Ulrich (2007). The Complete Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (1904–1913) by Winsor McCay 'Silas'. Ulrich Merkl. ISBN 978-3-00-020751-8.
  • Merkl, Ulrich (2007). The Complete Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (1904–1913) by Winsor McCay 'Silas' (.doc). Catalog of episodes & text of the book: Ulrich Merkl. ISBN 978-3-00-020751-8. (on included DVD)
  • Petersen, Robert (2010). Comics, Manga, and Graphic Novels: A History of Graphic Narratives. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-36330-6.
  • Taylor, Jeremy (2007). "Some archetypal symbolic aspects of Dream of the Rarebit Fiend". In Merkl, Ulrich (ed.). The Complete Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (1904–1913) by Winsor McCay 'Silas' (.doc). Catalog of episodes & text of the book: Ulrich Merkl. pp. 552–561. ISBN 978-3-00-020751-8. (on included DVD)
  • Telotte, J. P. (2010). Animating Space: From Mickey to Wall-E. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2586-2.
  • Theisen, Earl (1967) [1933]. "The History of the Animated Cartooning". In Fielding, Raymond (ed.). A Technological History of Motion Pictures and Television. University of California Press. pp. 84–87. GGKEY:6ZBS232TCDQ.

Newspapers

  • Glenn, Joshua (October 31, 2007). "Waking Dream of the Rarebit Fiend". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  • Heer, Jeet (January 8, 2006). "The Dream Artist". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on February 27, 2006. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  • Persons, Dan (August 15, 2011). "Mighty Movie Podcast: Bill Plympton on The Flying House". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2012.

Web

  • Bissette, Stephen R. (July 23, 2007). "Dream of the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend: An Interview with Ulrich Merkl (with Three Addendums)". Myrant. Archived from the original on September 9, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
  • Brady, Matthew (March 12, 2008). "Dream of the Rarebit Fiend: The Saturdays". Comics Bulletin. Archived from the original on November 22, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
  • Heller, Steven (November 13, 2007). "The Rarebit Fiend Dreams On: An Interview with Ulrich Merkl". AIGA. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  • Markstein, Don (2007). "Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  • Moody, Katie; Bissette, Stephen R. (November 22, 2010). "Survey 1 Comic Strip Essays: Katie Moody on Winsor McCay's "Dream of the Rarebit Fiend"". Center for Cartoon Studies. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  • van Opstal, Huib (January 2008). "Dreams and Obsessions on Shelf and Screen". For Inspiration Only. Archived from the original on April 29, 2008. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  • Raiteri, Steve (March 15, 2006). "Graphic novels". Library Journal. Archived from the original on November 12, 2006. Retrieved October 5, 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  • Stofka, Beth Davies (February 3, 2008). "The Complete Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (1904–1913) by Winsor McCay 'Silas'". Ulrich Merkl, 2007". Broken Frontier. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
  • Young, James E. (2000). "Art Spiegelman's Maus and the After-Images of History". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 16, 2001. Retrieved July 4, 2012.

External links

Strips

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