Inter-Allied Women's Conference

A black and white group photograph of 15 women in Edwardian dress posing on the outdoor entrance stairs
Inter-Allied Women's Conference: First row, left to right: Florence Jaffray Harriman (United States); Marguerite de Witt-Schlumberger (France); Marguerite Pichon-Landry (France). Second row: Juliet Barrett Rublee (United States); Dr. Katharine Bement Davis (United States), Cécile Brunschvicg (France). Third row: Millicent Garrett Fawcett (Great Britain); Ray Strachey (Great Britain); Rosamond Smith (Great Britain). Fourth row: Jane Brigode (Belgium); Marie Parent (Belgium). Fifth row: Nina Boyle (South Africa); Louise van den Plas (Belgium). Sixth row: Graziella Sonnino Carpi (Italy); Eva Mitzhouma (Poland)

The Inter-Allied Women's Conference (also known as the Suffragist Conference of the Allied Countries and the United States)[Notes 1] opened in Paris on 10 February 1919. A parallel conference to the Paris Peace Conference, it was convened to introduce women's issues to the peace process following the end of the First World War. Leaders in the international women's suffrage movement had been denied an opportunity to participate in the official proceedings several times before finally being allowed to make a presentation before the Commission on International Labour Legislation. Finally on 10 April, women were allowed to present a resolution to the League of Nations Commission. It covered the trafficking and sale of women, their political and suffrage status, and the transformation of education to include the humanitarian rights of all persons in each nation.

Though the women involved failed to achieve many of their aims, their efforts were significant in that they marked the first time women were allowed formal participation in an international treaty negotiation. They were also successful in gaining the right for women to serve in all capacities, whether as staff or delegates, in the League of Nations organisation; as well as provisions for humane labour conditions and the prevention of trafficking in women and children. The fact that the women were allowed to participate in the formal peace conference validated women's ability to take part in international policy making and globalised the discussion of human rights.


A sepia photograph showing the head and shoulders of a seated woman beside a small table on which is an open book
Marguerite de Witt-Schlumberger, conference organiser

The consequences of the First World War were profound: four empires fell; numerous countries were created or regained independence; and significant changes were made to the political, cultural, economic, and social climate of the world.[3] The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was the initial forum for establishing the terms of peace; it was by design a global conference with representation from 33 nations, concerned with a broad mandate extending to the establishment of a new international community based on moral and legal principles.[4] As such, it called on non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to assist in its work, and was the focus of NGO and lobby groups eager to advance their agendas by vigorous advocacy.[5]

As world leaders gathered for negotiations to draft peace terms after the armistices, Marguerite de Witt-Schlumberger—vice-president of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance and president of the auxilliary organisation, the French Union for Women's Suffrage[6][7]—wrote a letter dated 18 January 1919 to President Woodrow Wilson urging him to allow women to participate in the discussions that would inform the treaty negotiations and policy making.[8] Concerned with war crimes committed against women[9] and the lack of any formal outlet for women's political agency, French suffragists wrote to Wilson again on 25 January. They stressed that because some women had fought alongside men and many women had provided support for men in the war, women's issues should be addressed at the conference. Though Wilson acknowledged their participation and sacrifices, he refused to grant women an official role in the peace process, arguing that their concerns were outside the scope of discussions and that conference delegates were not in a position to tell governments how to manage their internal affairs.[10]

During the Labour and Socialist International Conference held in Berne, Switzerland, between 3 and 8 February, women participants from the International Women's Committee of Permanent Peace had held a special meeting organised by Rosika Schwimmer,[11] the Hungarian ambassador to Switzerland and founder of the Hungarian Feminist Association.[12] The delegates at the Berne conference resolved that they would support a democratically-formed League of Nations and women's participation in the Paris Peace Conference.[11] In response, women from the French Union for Women's Suffrage and the National Council of French Women, acting under the leadership of de Witt-Schlumberger, invited international colleagues to meet in Paris in a parallel conference scheduled to open on 10 February.[13][14] They sent invitations to organisations involved in the suffrage movement in all Allied nations, asking for delegates to participate in a women's conference to present their views and concerns to the delegates of the "official" conference. In parallel, the French feminists worked to persuade the male delegates to support the women's involvement,[14] as they were convinced that international co-operation and co-ordination were required to solve domestic socio-economic problems.[15]

A delegation of 80 French women led by Valentine Thomson, editor of La Vie Feminine[16] and daughter of former cabinet minister Gaston Thomson,[17] met with President Wilson on 1 February at Villa Murat to press for their inclusion in the deliberations of the peace conference. His response was similar to his previous stance, that labour issues might be discussed, but women's civil and political rights were domestic issues.[18] Nine days later, when the conference opened, Thomson and Louise Compain,[19] a writer and member of the French Union for Women's Suffrage,[20] began serving as editors and translators to the women's conference secretary, Suzanne Grinberg,[19] a lawyer, vice-president of the Association du Jeune Barreau in Paris, and secretary of the central committee of the French Union for Women's Suffrage.[21] Constance Drexel, a German-American newspaper reporter, wrote daily dispatches for The Chicago Tribune Foreign News Service and collaborated with the delegates throughout the conference.[22][23] The women who responded to the call to participate as delegates or to bring information about conditions in their countries included representatives from France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as Armenia, Belgium, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, and South Africa.[19][24][25][26]


The Paris Peace Conference negotiations took place from January to May 1919,[27] while the women's conference convened from mid-February to mid-April.[28] Though their conference did not begin until February, when they arrived in Paris, the women immediately got to work.[29][30] On 11 February,[31] a delegation led by chair Millicent Fawcett,[29][30] a leader in the British suffrage movement and president of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies,[32] called on Wilson asking if a Women's Commission could be included in the conference to address the concerns of women and children.[29][30] At the meeting Wilson suggested, instead, that the male diplomats on the commission form a Women's Commission to which the Inter-Allied Women's Conference could serve as advisers.[30]

The delegation included Zabel Yesayan of Armenia,[33][34] who brought a report about women in Armenia and Macedonia being captured during the war and detained in harems;[35] Margherita Ancona, president of the National Pro Suffrage Federation for Italy;[13][19] and Nina Boyle (Union of South Africa),[19][33] a member of the Women's Freedom League and a journalist.[36] Belgian delegates included Jane Brigode, president of the Belgian Federation for Suffrage and Marie Parent, president of the Belgian National Council of Women and League for Rights of Women. Also present were British delegates Ray Strachey,[31] a member of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies[37] and Rosamund Smith.[31] The French women who participated in the delegation were de Witt-Schlumberger;[38] Cécile Brunschvicg, a founder of the French Union for Women's Suffrage and its first general secretary;[39] and Marguerite Pichon-Landry,[38] chair of the legislation section of the National Council of French Women.[40] The delegates from the United States were Katharine Bement Davis,[31] head of the United States government's Women's Department of Social Hygiene;[41] Florence Jaffray Harriman,[31] chair of the Women's Committee of the Democratic Party;[42] and Juliet Barrett Rublee,[31] a member of the National Birth Control League and the Cornish [New Hampshire] Equal Suffrage League.[43][44]

The following day,[45] an almost identical delegation to that which had met with Wilson, met with President Poincaré and his wife, Henriette at the Élysée Palace. It included de Witt Schlumberger,[19] Ruth Atkinson,[19][46] president of the Nelson, New Zealand branch of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union,[47] and delegates from Australia,[Notes 2] Belgium, England, France and Italy. Also present were three women from the United States: Florence Jaffray Harriman, Juliet Barrett Rublee, and Harriet Taylor, head of the YMCA in France.[50] On 13 February, Wilson took the request to the Council of Ten—Arthur Balfour (United Kingdom), Georges Clemenceau (France), Robert Lansing (US), Baron Nobuaki Makino (Japan), Viscount Alfred Milner (United Kingdom), Vittorio Orlando (Italy), Stephen Pichon (France), Sidney Sonnino (Italy), and Wilson—along with the Maharaja of Bikaner Ganga Singh (India) and other dignitaries.[29][51] Once again the women's proposal was dismissed,[29] with Prime Minister Clemenceau recommending that they be referred to work with the Commission on Labour.[52][Notes 3]

Their dismissal did not stop the women from attempting to gain support from the peace conference delegates. They met with Jules Cambon, Paul Hymans and French President Raymond Poincaré, all of whom agreed that the women's input on such issues as deportations from Armenia, Belgium, Greece, France, Poland, and Serbia and the sale of women in Greece and the Ottoman Empire were pertinent issues on which a women's commission might gather data.[9] At the end of February, some of the women who had come from Britain returned home and were replaced in early March by Margery Corbett Ashby,[19] a member of the executive board of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies,[54] and Margery Fry,[19] a penal reformer, who at one time was president of the Birmingham branch of the National Union of Women Workers and a member of the Constitutional Society for Women's Suffrage.[55][56] Also by the end of February, Graziella Sonnino Carpi[26] of the Unione femminile nazionale [it] of Milan[57] and Eva Mitzhouma of Poland had joined the women's conference.[26]

In all, the women's conference delegates met with peace conference delegates from 16 countries, hoping to generate support at least for allowing women to sit on committees likely to deal with issues concerning women and children.[58] A second delegation of women, led by de Witt-Schlumberger, met with the Council of Ten, without Wilson present, on 11 March.[59][60] The delegates who were present agreed to allow the women an audience with the Commission on International Labour Legislation and the League of Nations Commission.[59] While an audience was far less than the women wanted, allowing them formal participation in an international treaty negotiation was unprecedented.[60]

On 18 March, suffragists testified before the Labour Commission, giving an overview of women's working conditions.[59][61][62] In addition to Margery Corbett Ashby (United Kingdom), several of the delegates were from France. These included Eugénie Beeckmans[62] a seamstress and member of the French Confederation of Christian Workers;[63] Georgette Bouillot,[62] representative of the workers of the Confédération générale du travail;[64] Jeanne Bouvier[62] co-founder of the Office français du travail à domicile and trade unionist;[64] Cécile Brunschvicg[62] Gabrielle Duchêne[62] co-founder of the Office français du travail à domicile,[64] pacifist, and member of the National Council of French Women;[65] and Maria Vérone[62] lawyer, journalist, and general secretary of the French League for Women's Rights.[66] Delegates from other countries included Florence Jaffray Harriman (United States);[62] Marie d'Amalio-Tivoli,[62][67][68][Notes 4] wife of Peace Conference delegate Mariano D'Amelio [it][67] and Louise van den Plas (Belgium),[62] founder of the Féminisme chrétien de Belgique (Christian Feminism of Belgium) Association.[69]

The resolutions the women's conference delegates presented to the chair, Samuel Gompers, covered a variety of issues including the health hazards of working conditions.There were recommendations on limiting hours worked per day and per week, on establishing a fair minimum wage based upon a cost of living analysis, and on equal pay for equal work; as well as on regulations for child labour, maternity pay, and technical trade education. They also asked for each nation to establish a formal body of women members to analyse and advise on legislative policy liable to impact women.[62] Two trade unionists from the United States, Mary Anderson and Rose Schneiderman, arrived in Paris too late to participate in the presentation to the Labour Commission. Instead, they met with Wilson, to urge that women be allowed to participate in global governance structures. Though he made promises to include women, they were to be unfulfilled.[70] By the end of March, the women had persuaded the delegates to introduce a measure specifying that women could serve in any office of the League of Nations. The resolution was presented by Lord Robert Cecil and received unanimous approval on 28 March.[71]

Lady Aberdeen, president of the International Council of Women arrived at the conference after the delegates had met with the Labour Commission to assist with preparations for the presentation to the League of Nations Commission. She called together a group of women to prepare a resolution to be read to the delegates. The documents they prepared focused on three key areas: civil status, political status, and human rights.[72] Arguing that the civil status of women and children was inadequately addressed in international law, the women's conference delegates expressed concern over civil codes which allowed child marriages; condoned prostituting, trafficking, and the sale of women and children; and treated women as the chattels of their husbands and fathers. They called for international law to provide protections in these areas,[35] and proposed an institution be established to protect public health and advise the public on hygiene and disease. The resolution pointed out that while women suffered in time of war, they also undertook jobs which soldiers, who were away fighting, could not do and supported efforts to secure the safety and welfare of their countries. They asked for suffrage to be granted to women, enabling them to participate in the process of governance. The women's final point was that provisions should be made to ensure that internationally education provided training on civilisation and the obligations of citizenship, with a focus on respecting the humanity, cultures, and human rights of all citizens of each nation.[73]

Group photograph of hatted women with five seated on the front row and eleven standing behind
Conference end participants: Front row (l-r): Maria d’Amelio-Tivoli (Italy), Avril de Sainte-Croix (France), Julie Siegfried (France), Lady Aberdeen (Scotland), Marguerite de Witt-Schlumberger (France). Back row (l-r): Constance Drexel (United States), Juliet Barret Rublee (United States), Nicole Girard-Mangin (France), Suzanne Grinberg (France), unknown, Maria Vérone (France), unknown, Margaret Corbett Ashby (Great Britain), Cécile Brunschvicg (France), Alice Schiavoni (Italy), and Fannie Fern Andrews (United States)


Seventeen of the delegates from the Inter-Allied Women's Conference participated on 10 April in a presentation to the League of Nations Commission.[60] Among them were Lady Aberdeen, de Witt Schlumberger, Margery Corbett Ashby, Cécile Brunschvicg, Margery Fry, Suzanne Grinberg, Juliet Barrett Rublee, Marie d'Amalio-Tivoli, and Maria Vérone. French women in the delegation included Gabrielle Alphen-Salvador[34] of the French Union for Women's Suffrage, who was on the International Women's Council's steering committee;[74] Nicole Girard-Mangin,[34] a military physician and campaigner for the French Union for Women's Suffrage;[75] Marie-Louise Puech,[34] a secretary of the French Union for Women's Suffrage;[76] Avril de Sainte-Croix,[34] a journalist and secretary of the National Council of French Women;[77] and Julie Siegfried,[34] president of the National Council of French Women.[78] The rest of the delegation included Elisa Brătianu, wife of the Prime Minister of Romania Ion I. C. Brătianu;[25][34] Fannie Fern Andrews,[34] a Canadian-American teacher, pacifist,[79] and member of the Woman's Peace Party,[80] who founded the American School Peace League;[81] and Alice Schiavoni,[34] a member of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Donne Italiane.[82] The delegates insisted women should be given equal access to all offices, committees, and bodies of the League, and that governments which failed to grant equality to women should be barred from membership.[60] They argued that if people were allowed to have self-determination, women should have equal opportunity and the legal right to make their own life choices. The demands for suffrage and recognition of the civil, political, and human rights of women were unsuccessful. However, Article 7 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, which was incorporated into the Versailles Treaty, admitted women to all organisational positions of the League.[83]


The delegates of the official peace conference refused to see women's citizenship and political agency as an international concern or one of human rights. Instead, especially in regard to married women, the delegates maintained that each nation should have the ability to determine its own citizenship requirements.[84] The Inter-Allied Women's Conference suggestions on education, labour, and nationality were deemed "far too radical" for implementation and most of them were dismissed without much consideration.[85][86] The Covenant of the League of Nations did contain provisions "that the member states should promote humane conditions of labour for men, women, and children, as well as prevent traffic in women and children".[85]

Many feminists who had initially supported the creation of the League of Nations were disillusioned by the final terms of the Treaty of Versailles. At the Zürich Peace Conference, hosted by the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace from 17 to 19 May 1919, the delegates vilified the Treaty for both its punitive measures and its lack of provisions to condemn violence. They also expressed disdain for the exclusion of women from civil and political participation.[87] Representatives of the Women for Permanent Peace (renamed the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom at the Zürich conference) incorporated many of the ideals of the Inter-Allied Women's Conference in the "Woman's Charter", which they eventually adopted.[86] The International Labour Organisation, when it was founded as an agency of the League of Nations, adopted the women's idea of equal pay for equal work in its constitutional preamble.[88] Its governing documents also specified a woman delegate should be appointed to attend the International Labour Conference, whenever issues concerning women were to be discussed.[89]

Women labour leaders, also dissatisfied with the outcome of the negotiations, were intent on participating in the November International Labour Conference scheduled to convene in Washington, D.C. Margaret Dreier Robins, president of the Women's Trade Union League, was convinced that women would again be barred from official proceedings. To prevent such an outcome, she spearheaded the International Congress of Working Women, which convened on 29 October to prepare an agenda of significant points.[90] During the ten days of the conference, the women adopted into their resolution many of the labour standards and workers' rights guarantees that the women's conference delegates had proposed.[91] The subsequent attendance and authoritative speeches made by many of the delegates from the Congress of Working Women at the International Labour Conference resulted in the passage of international labour standards for maternity leave, on working hours, and for child labour (though these were below those proposed by the women concerned).[92]


During the Second World War, French feminist archives, along with others from Belgium, Liechtenstein, and the Netherlands, including the International Archives for the Women's Movement, were looted by the Nazis. As the Soviet forces advanced on the territories held by Germany, they confiscated the records and took them to Moscow where they were housed in the KGB's secret Osobyi Archive [de] (Russian: Особый архив). Discovered in the early 1990s, glasnost and perestroika policy reforms eventually led to the repatriation of the documents to their respective countries of origin.[93][94] The French archival records were delivered in two convoys in February and November 2000 and catalogued by the Archives Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It was determined by the heirs of the feminists, whose works had been stolen, that a public archive would be beneficial and the Association des archives féministes (Feminist Archives Association) was founded to create the Archives du Féminisme at the University of Angers. After two years of sorting and cataloguing the materials, the archive opened, allowing scholars to begin accessing and assessing the documents.[93]

Because the initial meetings of women with the Peace Conference delegates and the Council of Ten were not part of the official records of the conference,[49] and the French archives had been effectively lost,[93] scholarship on the Inter-Allied Women's Conference did not emerge until the 21st century.[95] These new studies into the Conference have shown that women were active participants in the peace process and desired to assume public roles in shaping the international policies at the end of the First World War. The historian Glenda Sluga, a fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities,[96] states that the participants saw "female self-determination as the corollary of the democratisation of nations".[97] In 2019, the 133rd American Historical Association meeting featured presentations by Dr. Mona L. Siegel of California State University and Dr. Dorothy Sue Cobble of Rutgers University reassessing the import of the Inter-Allied Women's Conference to the peace process in 1919.[98] Siegel concluded that though the women's conference delegates did not achieve many of their aims, they legitimised women's participation in international policy making and globalised the discussion of human rights, successes which have continued to the present day.[19]

Conference participants


  1. ^ Some "official" reports refer to the conference as the Suffragist Conference of the Allied Countries and the United States.[1][2]
  2. ^ Inclusion of an Australian delegate may be in error. While newspapers from Australia (searched from January–May 1919) report on Atkinson of New Zealand, they do not mention an Australian delegate[48] Neither Siegel[19] nor Glenda Sluga include an Australian in attendance either.[49]
  3. ^ The discussion regarding "the ladies" does not appear in the official minutes for 13 February[53] and Glenda Sluga, a historian at the University of Sydney, stated that evidence of the "secret meeting" was found in the archival records of the "American Commission to Negotiate Peace".[49]
  4. ^ In a letter to Carrie Chapman Catt about the conference, Fannie Fern Andrews recorded "Madame D'Amatio Tivoli, Italy". It is unclear whether the participant's surname was "D'Amatio" and the place Tivoli, Italy or if the surname is "Tivoli".[25] Oldfield cites the surname as "Tivoli".[24] The Chicago Tribune lists her name as Mme. d'Amalio-Tivoli,[22] which appears to be the correct identity based on other sources.[67][68]



  1. ^ Finch 1919, p. 186.
  2. ^ The Guardian 1919b, p. 9.
  3. ^ Carruthers 2015, p. 5.
  4. ^ Charnovitz 2003, p. 61.
  5. ^ Charnovitz 2003, p. 62.
  6. ^ Rupp 1997, p. 211.
  7. ^ Offen 2018, p. 597.
  8. ^ Siegel 2019, pp. 1–2.
  9. ^ a b Ferguson 1919, p. 5.
  10. ^ The Philadelphia Inquirer 1919, p. 4.
  11. ^ a b Sluga 2000, pp. 506–507.
  12. ^ Zimmermann & Major 2006, pp. 485, 487.
  13. ^ a b Guerra 2012, p. 76.
  14. ^ a b Siegel 2019, p. 2.
  15. ^ Cobble 2018, p. 29.
  16. ^ The New York Tribune 1919, p. 4.
  17. ^ Drexel 1919a, p. 2.
  18. ^ Hansen 1919, p. 33.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Siegel 2019, p. 9.
  20. ^ Pedersen 2019, pp. 137, 147.
  21. ^ Oldfield 2003, p. 310.
  22. ^ a b The Chicago Tribune 1919, p. 5.
  23. ^ Edwards 1991, p. 16.
  24. ^ a b Oldfield 2003, pp. 89, 104.
  25. ^ a b c Andrews 1919, p. 2.
  26. ^ a b c The Star Tribune 1919, p. 10.
  27. ^ Charnovitz 2003, p. 60.
  28. ^ Siegel 2019, p. 1.
  29. ^ a b c d e Sluga 2006, p. 106.
  30. ^ a b c d Siegel 2019, p. 4.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Drexel 1919b, p. 2.
  32. ^ Howarth 2007.
  33. ^ a b The Guardian 1919a, p. 5.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i Oldfield 2003, p. 104.
  35. ^ a b Oldfield 2003, p. 105.
  36. ^ The Guardian 1912, p. 14.
  37. ^ Willis 2018.
  38. ^ a b Drexel 1919c, p. 8.
  39. ^ Caron 2009.
  40. ^ Bard 2015.
  41. ^ The Greenville Daily News 1919, p. 1.
  42. ^ The Daily Arkansas Gazette 1912, p. 44.
  43. ^ Johnson 2017, p. 183.
  44. ^ The New York Tribune 1919, p. 2.
  45. ^ Drexel 1919d, p. 3.
  46. ^ The Auckland Star 1919, p. 16.
  47. ^ The Colonist 1919, p. 2.
  48. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald 1919, p. 7.
  49. ^ a b c Sluga 2000, p. 498.
  50. ^ Drexel 1919e, p. 3.
  51. ^ Minutes of Meetings 1919, p. 1013.
  52. ^ Charnovitz 2003, p. 67.
  53. ^ Minutes of Meetings 1919, pp. 1013–1038.
  54. ^ Law 2000, p. 45.
  55. ^ Logan 2014, p. 371.
  56. ^ Morton 2018.
  57. ^ Hornbach 2003, p. 204.
  58. ^ Siegel 2019, p. 6.
  59. ^ a b c Sluga 2000, p. 508.
  60. ^ a b c d Siegel 2019, p. 7.
  61. ^ Charnovitz 2003, p. 68.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Oldfield 2003, p. 89.
  63. ^ Chabot 2003, p. 30.
  64. ^ a b c Cobble 2018, p. 30.
  65. ^ Dreyfus & Racine 2008.
  66. ^ Kimble 2016, p. 139.
  67. ^ a b c Clemente 1986.
  68. ^ a b Naldi 2010, p. 260.
  69. ^ Gérin 1969, p. 260.
  70. ^ Cobble 2018, pp. 31–32.
  71. ^ The St. Louis Star 1919, p. 1.
  72. ^ Oldfield 2003, pp. 104–105.
  73. ^ Oldfield 2003, p. 106.
  74. ^ Bouquet 2019.
  75. ^ Morant 2014.
  76. ^ Témoignages de 1914–1918 2015.
  77. ^ Offen & Bruhat 2005.
  78. ^ Feutry 2017, p. 204.
  79. ^ Downing 1913, p. 56a.
  80. ^ Year Book 1916, p. 14.
  81. ^ Stomfay-Stitz 1994, p. 7.
  82. ^ Bartoloni 2016.
  83. ^ Siegel 2019, p. 8.
  84. ^ Sluga 2000, p. 500.
  85. ^ a b Pietilä 1999, p. 2.
  86. ^ a b Sluga 2000, p. 507.
  87. ^ Wiltsher 1985, pp. 200–202.
  88. ^ Cobble 2018, p. 32.
  89. ^ Cobble 2015, p. 214.
  90. ^ Cobble 2014, pp. 1064–1065.
  91. ^ Cobble 2014, p. 1066.
  92. ^ Cobble 2014, pp. 1069–1070.
  93. ^ a b c Poinsotte 2002.
  94. ^ de Haan 2004, pp. 156–161.
  95. ^ Sluga 2000, p. 495.
  96. ^ Humanity 2016.
  97. ^ Sluga 2000, pp. 496–497.
  98. ^ Global Feminisms and 1919 2019.


  • Andrews, Fannie Fern (20 June 1919). Letter to Carrie Chapman Catt (PDF) (Report). Boston, Massachusetts.  – via ASP: Women and Social Movements (subscription required)
  • Bard, Christine (2015). "Marguerite Pichon-Landry (1878–1972)". (in French). University of Angers. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  • Bartoloni, Stefania (2016). "Rasponi Spalletti, Gabriella". (in Italian). Biographical Dictionary of Italians – Volume 86. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • Bouquet, Brigitte (2019). "Alphen-Salvador Gabrielle (1856–1920)". Cedias – Musée Social (in French). Paris, France: Social Service History Research Group. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • Caron, Vicki (27 February 2009). "Cécile Brunschvicg". Jewish Women's Archive. Brookline, Massachusetts: Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • Carruthers, Amelia (2015). "Introduction to the World War One Centenary Series". In Kreisler, Fritz (ed.). Four Weeks in the Trenches: The War Story of a Violinist. WWI Centenary Series (Reprint of 1915 Houghton Mifflin publication with new introductory essays ed.). Falls Village, Connecticut: Last Post Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-4733-6809-5.
  • Chabot, Joceline (2003). Les débuts du syndicalisme féminin chrétien en France, 1899-1944 (in French). Lyon, France: Presses Universitaires Lyon. ISBN 978-2-7297-0730-9.
  • Charnovitz, Steve (Winter 2003). "The Emergence of Democratic Participation in Global Governance (Paris, 1919)". Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. 10 (1): 45–77. doi:10.2979/gls.2003.10.1.45. ISSN 1543-0367. JSTOR 10.2979/gls.2003.10.1.45.
  • Clemente, Vincenzo (1986). "D'Amelio, Mariano". Treccani (in Italian). Rome, Italy: Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Volume 32. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  • Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2018). "1: 'The Other ILO Founders': 1919 and Its Legacies". In Boris, Eileen; Hoehtker, Dorothea; Zimmerman, Susan (eds.). Women's ILO: Transnational Networks, Global Labour Standards, and Gender Equity, 1919 to Present. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Publishers. pp. 27–49. ISBN 978-90-04-36043-3.
  • Cobble, Dorothy Sue (March 2014). "A Higher "Standard of Life" for the World: U.S. Labor Women's Reform Internationalism and the Legacies of 1919". The Journal of American History. 100 (4): 1052–1085. doi:10.1093/jahist/jau005. – via Oxford University Press's Oxford Academic (subscription required)
  • Cobble, Dorothy Sue (Spring 2015). "Who Speaks for Workers? Japan and the 1919 ILO Debates Over Rights and Global Labor Standards". International Labor and Working-Class History. 87 (87): 213–234. doi:10.1017/S0147547914000271.
  • de Haan, Francisca (Winter 2004). "Getting to the Source: A "Truly International" Archive for the Women's Movement(IAV, now IIAV): From its Foundation in Amsterdam in 1935 to the Return of its Looted Archives in 2003" (PDF). Journal of Women's History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 16 (4): 148–172. doi:10.1353/jowh.2004.0082. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2017.
  • Downing, Margaret B. (5 January 1913). "Apostle of Peace to Schools (pt 1)". The Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. p. 56a. Retrieved 4 October 2019 – via and Downing, Margaret B. (5 January 1913). "Apostle of Peace to Schools (pt 2)". The Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. p. 56a. Retrieved 4 October 2019 – via
  • Drexel, Constance (26 January 1919). "French Prohibit Public Meetings Held for Wilson". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. The Chicago Tribune Foreign News Service. p. 2. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • Drexel, Constance (16 February 1919). "Poincare Gives Women Hope of 'Place in Sun'". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. The Chicago Tribune Foreign News Service. p. 3. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • Drexel, Constance (12 February 1919). "Suffragists in Paris Pleased at Wilson Visit". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. The Chicago Tribune Foreign News Service. p. 2. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • Drexel, Constance (15 February 1919). "Women Adopt Peace Code". The San Antonio Evening News. San Antonio, Texas. The Chicago Tribune Foreign News Service. p. 3. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • Drexel, Constance (13 February 1919). "Women's Conference in Paris". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. The Chicago Tribune Foreign News Service. p. 8. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • Dreyfus, Michel; Racine, Nicole (25 October 2008). "Duchêne Gabrielle (Duchêne Mathilde, Denise, dite)". Maitron (in French). Paris, France. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  • Edwards, John Carver (1991). Berlin calling: American Broadcasters in Service to the Third Reich. New York, New York: Praeger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-275-93905-2.
  • Ferguson, Fred S. (17 February 1919). "French in Demand for Strong Action, pt. 1". The Fort Wayne Sentinel. Ft. Wayne, Indiana. United Press International. p. 1. Retrieved 27 January 2019 – via and Ferguson, Fred S. (17 February 1919). "French in Demand for Strong Action, pt. 2". The Fort Wayne Sentinel. Ft. Wayne, Indiana. United Press International. p. 5. Retrieved 27 January 2019 – via
  • Feutry, David (11 October 2017). Rebelles de la foi. Les protestants en France, XVI-XXIe siècle [Rebels of faith: Protestants in France, XVI-XXI Centuries] (in French). Paris, France: Belin. ISBN 978-2-410-01167-8.
  • Finch, George A. (April 1919). "The Peace Conference of Paris, 1919". American Journal of International Law. Washington, D.C.: American Society of International Law. 13 (2): 159–186. doi:10.2307/2188076. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2188076.
  • Gérin, Paul (1969). "Louise Van den Plas et les débuts du "Feminisme Chrétien de Belgique"" [Louise Van den Plas and the beginnings of "Christian Feminism of Belgium"] (PDF). Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (in French). Brussels, Belgium: Centre for Historical Research and Documentation on War and Contemporary Society. 1 (2): 254–275. ISSN 0035-0869. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  • Guerra, Elda (13 July 2012). L'Associazionismo internazionale delle donne tra diritti, democrazia, politiche di pace 1888 – 1939 [International Women's Rights Associations, Democracy, Peace Policies 1888 – 1939] (PDF) (PhD) (in Italian). Viterbo, Italy: Università degli Studi della Tuscia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  • Hansen, Harry (2 February 1919). "Women of World Thank Wilson for Fostering Rights". The Oregon Daily Journal. Portland, Oregon. The Chicago Daily News. p. 33. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • Hornbach, Katja Gerhartzaus (2003). Le madri della Patria: Bürgerliche Frauenbewegung,Nationalismus und Krieg in Italien (1900–1922) [Mothers of the Homeland: Civil women's movement, nationalism and war in Italy (1900–1922)] (PDF) (PhD) (in German). Düsseldorf, Germany: Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  • Howarth, Janet (4 October 2007). "Fawcett, Dame Millicent Garrett [née Millicent Garrett] (1847–1929)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33096.
  • Johnson, Joan Marie (2017). Funding Feminism: Monied Women, Philanthropy, and the Women's Movement, 1870–1967. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-4696-3470-8.
  • Kimble, Sara L. (2016). "The rise of "Modern Portias": Feminist Legal Activism in Republican France, 1890s–1940s". In Kimble, Sara L.; Röwekamp, Marion (eds.). New Perspectives on European Women's Legal History. New York, New York: Routledge. pp. 125–147. ISBN 978-1-317-57716-4.
  • Law, Cheryl (2000). "Corbett-Ashby, Margery Irene". Women: A Modern Political Dictionary. London, England: I.B. Tauris. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-1-86064-502-0.
  • Logan, Anne (17 January 2014). "Political Life in the Shadows: the post suffrage political career of S. Margery Fry (1874–1958)". Women's History Review. Milton Park, Abingdon-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Taylor and Francis. 23 (3): 365–380. doi:10.1080/09612025.2013.820605. ISSN 0961-2025. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • Morant, Guillaume de (4 August 2014). "Nicole Girard-Mangin, première femme médecin sur le front" [Nicole Girard-Mangin, first female doctor at the front]. Paris Match (in French). Paris, France. ISSN 0397-1635. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • Morton, Tara (2018). "Suffrage Societies Database Guide". Suffrage Resources. London, England: Historical Association and the Association for Citizenship Teaching. Archived from the original on 4 October 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • Naldi, Nerio (2010). "17. Piero Sraffa in his family: 1898 to 1916". In Vint, John; Metcalfe, J. Stanley; Kurz, Heinz D.; Salvadori, Neri; Samuelson, Paul (eds.). Economic Theory and Economic Thought: Essays in Honour of Ian Steedman. London, England: Routledge. pp. 257–295. ISBN 978-1-135-18300-4.
  • Offen, Karen (2018). Debating the Woman Question in the French Third Republic, 1870-1920. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-18804-4.
  • Offen, Karen; Bruhat, Michèle (translator) (December 2005). ""La plus grande féministe de France". Mais qui est donc Madame Avril de Sainte-Croix?" ["The greatest feminist of France": But who is Madame Avril de Sainte-Croix?]. Bulletin Archives du feminism (in French). Rennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Rennes (9). Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • Oldfield, Sybil, ed. (2003). "France: The Inter-Allied Conference in Paris". International Woman Suffrage: Ius Suffragii 1913–1920. IV: October 1918 – September 1920. London, England: Taylor & Francis. pp. 88–89, 104–106. ISBN 978-0-415-25740-4.
  • Pedersen, Jean Elisabeth (2019). "Women's Activist Social Novels and the French Search for Social Reform, 1880-1914". In Barton, Nimisha; Hopkins, Richard S. (eds.). Practiced Citizenship: Women, Gender, and the State in Modern France. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 127–156. ISBN 978-1-4962-1247-4.
  • Pietilä, Hilkka (31 March 1999). Engendering the Global Agenda: A Success Story of Women and the United Nations (PDF). European Consortium for Political Research Workshop. Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany: University of Mannheim. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  • Poinsotte, Valérie (June 2002). "Archives Brunschvicg, Cécile (1 AF)". (in French). Angers, France: Bibliothèque Université D'Angers. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  • Rupp, Leila J. (1997). Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01675-5.
  • Siegel, Mona L. (6 January 2019). "In the Drawing Rooms of Paris: The Inter-Allied Women's Conference of 1919". Chicago, Illinois. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) excerpted from Siegel, Mona L. (2019). Peace on Our Terms The Global Battle for Women's Rights After the First World War. New York City, New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-19510-2.
  • Sluga, Glenda (2006). "5. Gender and the Apogee of Nationalism, 1914–1919". The Nation, Psychology, and International Politics, 1870–1919. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 106–131. ISBN 978-1-349-28309-5.
  • Sluga, Glenda (2000). "Female and National Self‐Determination: A Gender Re‐reading of 'The Apogee of Nationalism'". Nations and Nationalism. Wiley-Blackwell for the Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism. 6 (4): 495–521. doi:10.1111/j.1354-5078.2000.00495.x. ISSN 1354-5078. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  • Stomfay-Stitz, Aline M. (7 April 1994). Peace Education for Children: Historical Perspectives. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Education Resources Information Center. ED-381-464. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • Willis, Angela (2018). "The Suffragist Caravanners". The National Motor Museum. Beaulieu, Hampshire, England: The National Motor Museum Trust. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  • Wiltsher, Anne (1985). Most Dangerous Women: Feminist peace campaigners of the Great War (1st ed.). London, England: Pandora Press. ISBN 978-0-86358-010-9.
  • Zimmermann, Susan; Major, Borbala (2006). "Schwimmer, Róza (Bédy-Schwimmer, Bédi-Schwimmer, Rózsa, Rosika) (1877-1948)". In de Haan, Francisca; Daskalova, Krassimira; Loutfi, Anna (eds.). Biographical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms: Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe: 19th and 20th Centuries. Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press. pp. 484–490. ISBN 978-963-7326-39-4 – via Project MUSE.
  • "3 Amendments to League Held Over by Envoys". The St. Louis Star. St. Louis, Missouri. 28 March 1919. p. 1. Retrieved 27 January 2019 – via
  • "Author Archives: Glenda Sluga". Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Humanity. 2016. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  • "Child Welfare To Be Topic of Experts of Four Countries". The New York Tribune. New York, New York. 9 April 1919. p. 4. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • "French Women See American Moving Pictures". The Greenville Daily News. Greenville, North Carolina. United Press International. 25 January 1919. p. 1. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • Global Feminisms and 1919: Centennial Reconsiderations. 133rd Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association 3–6 January 2019, Chicago, Illinois. Washington, D. C.: American Historical Association. 6 January 2019. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  • "Official Report". The Guardian. London, England. 12 April 1919. p. 9. Retrieved 28 May 2019 – via
  • "Suffragists to Ask Conference Delegates To Back Resolution". The New York Tribune. New York, New York. 12 February 1919. p. 2. Retrieved 27 January 2019 – via
  • "Témoignages de 1914–1918: Puech-Milhau, Marie-Louise (1876–1966)" [Testimonies of 1914–1918: Puech-Milhau, Marie-Louise (1876–1966)]. Crid1418 (in French). Marseille, France: Collectif de Recherche International et de Débat sur la Guerre de 1914–1918. 13 June 2015. Archived from the original on 22 April 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  • The Council of Ten: Minutes of Meetings January 12 to February 14, 1919 (PDF) (Report). Washington, D. C.: United States Department of State. 1919. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  • "They Got Equality for Women in the League of Nations". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. 29 April 1919. p. 5. Retrieved 6 October 2019 – via
  • "Votes for Women No Peace Problem". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 27 January 1919. p. 4. Retrieved 27 January 2019 – via
  • "W. C. T. U. Convention". The Colonist. LXI (15059). Nelson, New Zealand. 30 April 1919. p. 2. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via Papers Past.
  • "Women and Children". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 17 February 1919. p. 7. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • "Women and Peace". The Auckland Star. L (93). Auckland, New Zealand. 19 April 1919. p. 16. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via Papers Past.
  • "Women and the Peace Conference". The Guardian. London, England. 18 February 1919. p. 5. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via
  • "Women as a Factor in the Political Campaign". The Daily Arkansas Gazette. Little Rock, Arkansas. 8 September 1912. p. 44. Retrieved 4 October 2019 – via
  • "Women Who Plead for International Suffrage". The Star Tribune. Minneapolis, Minnesota. 16 March 1919. p. 10. Retrieved 11 May 2019 – via
  • Year book of the Woman's Peace Party. Chicago, Illinois: Women's Peace Party. 1916.
  • "Women's Suffrage". The Guardian. London, England. 24 June 1912. p. 14. Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via