Si Tjonat

Si Tjonat
Directed byNelson Wong
Produced by
  • Nelson Wong
  • Jo Eng Sek
Based onTjerita Si Tjonat
by F.D.J. Pangemanann
Starring
  • Ku Fung May
  • Herman Sim
Production
company
Batavia Motion Picture
Release date
  • 1929 (1929) (Dutch East Indies)
CountryDutch East Indies
LanguageSilent

Si Tjonat (Perfected Spelling: Si Conat) is a likely-lost 1929 bandit film from the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) directed by Nelson Wong and produced by Wong and Jo Eng Sek. Based on the novel by F.D.J. Pangemanann, it followed an indigenous man who, having killed his friend, flees to Batavia (now Jakarta) and becomes a bandit. The silent film, a commercially oriented work aimed at ethnic Chinese audiences, received mixed reviews and disputed box office proceeds. Although intended as a serial, no sequel was ever made; the production house, Batavia Motion Picture, closed soon afterwards.

Plot

Tjonat, an indigenous person, kills his friend and escapes to Batavia (now Jakarta), the capital of the Dutch East Indies, where he finds work with a Dutch man. Tjonat soon robs the man of his wealth and seduces his mistress (njai). Tjonat later leaves the household to become a bandit. When he asks Lie Gouw Nio (Ku Fung May), the daughter of a peranakan Chinese farmer, to be his lover, she refuses. Enraged, Tjonat attempts to kidnap her but is thwarted by Lie's fiancé, Thio Sing Sang (Herman Sim), who is well-trained in martial arts.[1]

Production

A plain book cover, reading "Tjerita Si Tjonat" at the top, "Oleh" in the middle, and "F.D.J. Pangemanann" on the bottom.
Si Tjonat was based on Tjerita Si Tjonat (1900).

Si Tjonat was directed by Nelson Wong, who produced the film in conjunction with his business partner Jo Eng Sek. The two had established Batavia Motion Picture in 1929.[2] Wong had previously directed a single fiction film, the commercial flop Lily van Java (1928), with funding from a high-ranking General Motors employee in Batavia named David Wong.[a][3] Jo Eng Sek, a shop owner, had never produced a film.[4]

The story for Si Tjonat was based on the novel Tjerita Si Tjonat, written by reporter F.D.J. Pangemanann and first published in 1900.[5] The story had proven popular with ethnic Chinese readers.[4] It was often adapted to stage by Betawi stage troupes as a lenong performance.[b][5] The story was selected by Jo Eng Sek.[6]

The silent film was shot in black-and-white and starred Ku Fung May and Herman Sim.[7] Sim, of peranakan Chinese descent, had previous experience acting in the Shanghai-based film industry in China.[8] Ku Fung May, meanwhile, had no film experience. The martial arts sequences used in the film were inspired by Hollywood Westerns then-popular in the Indies.[6]

Release and reception

Si Tjonat was released in 1929. Although a work of fiction, it was advertised as based on a true story.[7] The film was one in a line of domestic production targeted primarily at ethnic Chinese audiences, following Lily van Java and Setangan Berloemoer Darah (both 1928); film historian Misbach Yusa Biran writes that this was evident from the predominantly Chinese production team and cast.[c] Native audiences also enjoyed the film, particularly its action sequences.[4] Indonesian film critic Salim Said writes that it was of distinctly commercial orientation, meant only to turn a profit.[9]

Sales figures are unclear. Said writes that it was a commercial success,[10] while Biran – noting that Batavia Motion Picture was dissolved not long after Si Tjonat's release – suggests that returns were poor.[8] Reviews were mixed. In general the press criticised the emphasis on murder and crime. Meanwhile, in his magazine Panorama, Kwee Tek Hoay wrote that the film had been "fairly well produced",[d][4] emphasising Sim's acting – particularly his martial arts skills.[8]

Although Si Tjonat was initially intended to be a serial, production of the second instalment halted after the closure of Batavia Motion Picture.[10] Jo Eng Sek left the industry completely, only returning in 1935 to produce Poei Sie Giok Pa Loei Tay.[11] Wong, meanwhile, remained active in the industry together with his brothers Joshua and Othniel. Using the banner Halimoen Film they later reused Sim in their 1931 film Si Pitoeng.[12] Neither Lie A. Tjip nor Ku Fung May acted in another film.[13] Several films centred around bandits, including Lie Tek Swie's Si Ronda (1929) and the Wongs' Si Pitoeng and Rampok Preanger (1929) followed soon after Si Tjonat.[14]

Si Tjonat is likely lost. The American visual anthropologist Karl G. Heider writes that all Indonesian films from before 1950 are lost.[15] However, JB Kristanto's Katalog Film Indonesia (Indonesian Film Catalogue) records several as having survived at Sinematek Indonesia's archives, and Biran writes that several Japanese propaganda films have survived at the Netherlands Government Information Service.[16]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ No relation
  2. ^ It remained popular until after Indonesia's independence in 1945 (Toer 1982, pp. 28–9).
  3. ^ The Chinese and native ethnic groups were divided both legally and culturally. The Dutch colonial government enacted legislation which stratified the Indies population at three levels, with the Chinese as middlemen between the higher-class Dutch and lower-class natives. Culturally, peranakan Chinese tended to orient themselves with mainland China and not the various native cultures, such as the Sundanese or Javanese. Although the Chinese were a small minority in the Indies, they maintained a higher standard of living than natives (Sukma 1999, pp. 171–172).
  4. ^ Original: "... atoerannja loemajan djoega".

References

  1. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Si Tjonat; Said 1982, p. 18; Sen 2006, p. 123
  2. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Si Tjonat; Biran 2009, p. 234; Said 1982, p. 17
  3. ^ Biran 2009, p. 82.
  4. ^ a b c d Biran 2009, p. 93.
  5. ^ a b Toer 1982, pp. 28–9.
  6. ^ a b Sen 2006, p. 123.
  7. ^ a b Filmindonesia.or.id, Si Tjonat.
  8. ^ a b c Biran 2009, p. 94.
  9. ^ Said 1982, p. 18.
  10. ^ a b Said 1982, p. 19.
  11. ^ Biran 2009, pp. 94, 152.
  12. ^ Biran 2009, p. 113–4.
  13. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Ku Fung May; Filmindonesia.or.id, Lie A Tjip
  14. ^ Biran 2009, pp. 105, 113.
  15. ^ Heider 1991, p. 14.
  16. ^ Biran 2009, p. 351.

Works cited

  • Biran, Misbach Yusa (2009). Sejarah Film 1900–1950: Bikin Film di Jawa (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Komunitas Bamboo working with the Jakarta Art Council. ISBN 978-979-3731-58-2. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  • Heider, Karl G (1991). Indonesian Cinema: National Culture on Screen. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1367-3.
  • "Ku Fung May". filmindonesia.or.id. Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  • "Lie A Tjip". filmindonesia.or.id. Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  • Said, Salim (1982). Profil Dunia Film Indonesia (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Grafiti Pers. OCLC 9507803. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  • Sen, Kreshna (2006). "'Chinese' Indonesians in National Cinema". In Sun, Wanning (ed.). Media and the Chinese Diaspora. New York: Routledge. pp. 119–136. ISBN 978-1-134-26359-2.
  • "Si Tjonat". filmindonesia.or.id. Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  • Sukma, Rizal (1999). Indonesia and China: The Politics of a Troubled Relationship. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-16535-5.
  • Toer, Pramoedya Ananta, ed. (1982). Tempo Doeloe: Antologi Sastra Pra-Indonesia (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Hasta Mitra. OCLC 9797224. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)

External links