馬來西亞-越南關係馬來語Hubungan Malaysia–Vietnam越南语Quan hệ Malaysia–Việt Nam)。兩國交往的歷史最早可以追溯到15世紀,而當代的馬來西亞政府則在1973年3月30日與當代的越南政府建交,截至2017年仍未中斷[1]。During the late 1970s and 1980s, the countries' relationship became strained as a result of the Cambodian–Vietnamese War and the influx of Vietnamese boat people into Malaysia. The subsequent resolution of these issues saw the cultivation of strong trade and economic ties, and bilateral trade between the countries grew strongly, with an expansion into areas including information technology, education and defence.

Vietnam and Malaysia share a maritime border in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea, and have overlapping claims in the Spratly Islands. Both have an embassy located in the other's capital; Vietnam has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate office in Ho Chi Minh City. Historical records show that Vietnamese people have visited states and Sultanates comprising modern-day Malaysia in small numbers since the 18th century, and Malaysia is currently home to a large Vietnamese expatriate community consisting of migrant workers, mail order brides and students, numbering around 100,000 people.[2] Vietnam also hosts a small Malaysian expatriate community, consisting mostly of businessmen based in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi.[3]



文獻記載,當今馬來西亞所屬的地區與越南的正式來往可以追溯到1469年(),當年滿剌加(今譯馬六甲)的使節向明廷納貢,卻在回國途中被安南後黎朝的官兵擄走,結果大部分使節遇害,年輕的則被閹割,淪為奴役。1481年()滿剌加再次遣使入貢,向明憲宗表明後黎朝企圖吞併滿剌加,明憲宗則要求滿剌加使節整備軍隊,準備防禦後黎朝的進攻[4][5]毛奇齡《蠻司合誌》的記載還指出,滿剌加曾經派兵前往老撾,擊退入侵的後黎朝官兵[6]。 The Malay Annals also mention a Cham prince taking some of his followers to form a small Cham colony in Malacca when Vietnam invaded Champa in 1471,[7] and deploying military assistance to Johor to fend off a botched military conquest in the 1590s.[8] In the mid 17th-century, the Cham vassal states Panduranga and Kelantan cultivated close diplomatic ties when they led a long-term diplomatic mission to Kelantan to learn more about Malay culture and Islam.[9] Subsequent Champa kings after Po Rome, beginning with his son Po Saut, periodically received Malay Muslim missionaries from Kelantan in the 17th and 18th centuries.[10]



胡志明曾經在1920年末、1930年代初協助馬來亞的共產主義者成立南洋共產黨(後來的馬來亞共產黨,即馬共),在這件事上發揮了關鍵的作用。他到過馬來亞幾次,曾經在1930年4月到柔佛巫羅加什主持馬來亞共產黨的成立典禮。同樣來自越南的萊特曾經在1934年至1938年期間獲選為馬共總書記,由此也可以看出胡志明對馬來亞共產黨的影響[15]。 萊特在1940年代末期失蹤,不過馬共和越南共產主義者的聯絡和合作關係並沒有因而中斷——當時馬共一度以海運的方式,協助越南獨立同盟會(越盟)接收輕武器。在第二次世界大战期間,越盟以及馬共籌建的馬來亞人民抗日軍都反對日軍入侵法屬印度支那馬來亞[16]。1954年越盟在奠邊府戰役獲勝,之後兩地共產黨幹部之間的聯繫就變得更加密切。越盟曾經在1950年代至1960年代期間向馬共提供小規模的物資援助、技術支援,還為馬共黨員提供培訓[17]


Malaysia和South Vietnam在世界的位置






The jetty of Pulau Bidong refugee camp taken in 1985, where up to 10,000 refugees maybe housed at any point of time. Pulau Bidong's refugee camp was later closed in 1991.

In May 1975, shortly after the Fall of Saigon at the end of the Vietnam War, the first Vietnamese refugees arrived in Malaysia, and the first boat that arrived carried 47 refugees.[30] Until 1978, more Vietnamese fled their country, and many of them were of Chinese descent. According to Malaysian government statistics, the country hosted 19,000 refugees in November 1978, compared to 500 in 1977.[31] The Malaysian government responded by directing its Home Ministry to set up Federal Task Force VII in 1978, which was tasked with limiting the rising number of refugees from landing in Malaysia.[32] The press reported incidents of Malaysian police and army personnel turning away the refugees, but some refugees resorted to deliberately sinking their boats to gain admittance to Malaysia.[33] When the government was informed of boat-sinking attempts made by the refugees, then Deputy Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad announced in June 1979 that legislation would be introduced to empower the police and navy to shoot refugees attempting to land.[34] Mahathir's superior, Prime Minister Hussein Onn quickly recanted Mahathir's shooting threat.[35]

The first Vietnamese refugee camp was opened in Pulau Bidong in August 1978 with United Nations assistance; the island accommodated up to 25,000 refugees. Other refugee camps were set up at Pulau Tengah, Pulau Besar, Kota Bharu, Kuantan, Sarawak and Sabah. In 1982, a transit centre was established at Sungei Besi, where refugees awaiting deportation to Western countries that were willing to accept them would be housed.[36] The number of Vietnamese refugee arrivals fluctuated between 1981 and 1983,[37] before a period of significant decrease from 1984 to 1986.[38] In 1987, Malaysia and other neighbouring countries saw a sudden increase in the number of Vietnamese refugees landing in Malaysia. At an ASEAN summit in June 1987, member countries chastised the Vietnamese government for not having sufficiently addressed the refugee problem.[39]

In August 1988, Malaysia and Vietnam jointly proposed an involuntary repatriation agreement, which provided for Vietnamese refugees that failed to gain admittance to Western countries to be counselled to return to Vietnam.[40] A few Vietnamese government delegations were deployed to conduct outreach sessions at some of the refugee camps.[41] This arrangement was considered unsuccessful because less than 40 individuals registered for the voluntary repatriation programme between 1988 and 1989.[42][43] A deadline was set for 14 March 1989, whereby all Vietnamese who arrived before that date would automatically be considered refugees and all refugees arriving after that date would undergo a screening process to assess whether they qualified for refugee status.[44] The screening process was proposed by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in June 1988; it involved thorough background checks on arrivals to determine whether they qualify for refugee status to be sent to any Western countries that were willing to accept them.[43] Within 10 months, 4,000 of 9,000 refugees were sent to Western countries. In the same period, an additional 11,000 refuges arrived in Malaysia.[42]

The implementation of stringent rules that require Vietnamese arrivals to qualify for refugee status prompted some of them to opt for the voluntary repatriation programme; between 1,000 and 2,000 arrivals to Malaysia returned to Vietnam in 1989.[44] Refugees who opted to return to Vietnam were provided with a monthly stipend for up to one year by the UNHCR. In the early 1990s, as Vietnam began to experience economic growth, the number of refugee arrivals to Malaysia dropped. Joint collaborations between Malaysia, Vietnam and UNHCR to address the problem enabled Malaysia to reduce the size of its Vietnamese refugee populace, facilitating the closure of the Pulau Bidong refugee camp in November 1991. 3,000 Vietnamese refugees participated in the voluntary repatriation programme,[45][46] and Malaysia's refugee populace reduced to 6,000 by 1994.[47] Most of the remaining arrivals were not able to pass the UNHCR screening process and were classified as illegal immigrants. The majority of them expressed their reluctance to be repatriated to Vietnam; demonstrations and rioting broke out when news of the camp's impending closure was announced in 1995. Sungei Besi refugee camp was later closed in June 1996.[48] The last refugees returned to Vietnam in 2005.[30]





自1976年開館以來,馬來西亞駐越南大使館先後三度搬遷。第一代館址位於統一酒店(後改名為河内大都市索菲特传奇酒店),至1983年遷出;第二代館址位於萬福使館區,至1984年遷出;第三代館址位於位於河内富都大酒店(Fortuna Hotel Hanoi),至2004年遷出。自2004年起,大使館開始在奠邊府街43-45號辦公。此外,馬來西亞駐胡志明市領事處在1991年開館,一年後升格為總領事館[50]

越南駐馬來西亞大使館館舍位於史顿诺路(Persiaran Stonor)4號,在1976年開館,前身是南越駐馬來西亞大使館,後由越南政府購入[57]。大使館的勞工處和武官處在2000年代成立,分開兩處辦公[58]。越南大使館在2013年2月購入布城15區一幅佔地0.69公頃(2英畝)的土地,用以興建新館舍,取代原有的館舍[59]



Bilateral trade between Malaysia and Vietnam stood at 2.2 million美元 following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.[60] Within the first three years after the war, Malaysia proposed to extend economic and technical assistance to Vietnam's oil palm and rubber industries. Malaysia exported zinc to Vietnam and signed a contract that would facilitate the import of Vietnamese vegetables into Malaysia. These early co-operations and proposals ended following Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979. Economic co-operation slowly resumed from 1988, when bilateral trade between the countries stood at $50 million.[27] In 1990, bilateral trade increased to $140 million and to $235 million in 1991. Around this time, Malaysian businessmen began to open hotels in Vung Tau to cater to its flourishing tourism industry.[61] At a bilateral summit in 1992, both countries agreed on the idea of joint oil and gas exploration; Vietnam has a sizeable number of oil fields in the South China Sea.[62]

Around this time, Malaysian statuory boards and government-linked companies including Bank Negara, MIDAS and Petronas started to provide technical assistance programmes to Vietnam.[63] Vietnam also sought Malaysia's assistance to develop its banking sector; Malaysia's Public Bank formed joint ventures with VID bank (later BIDV bank) to open branches in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City between 1993 and 1994.[49] By 1994, Malaysia became ASEAN's second largest investor in Vietnam. Exports from Vietnam to Malaysia mainly consisted of rice, rubber, oil seeds and machinery, while Malaysia exported machinery, equipment and chemicals mainly derived from the former's economic assistance to the country.[49] Malaysian businessmen were responsible for the development of the An Don Export Processing Zone beginning in 1994 in Danang.[64] At an APEC meeting in 1994, Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad spoke of the belief that Malaysia did not need to be totally self-reliant in food, and expressed his interest in procuring some food from Vietnam as a means of strengthening economic ties.[65] Two years later, Malaysian-made Proton Wira cars were first sold in Vietnam.[66]

A joint commission meeting between the countries in 1996 brought skilled and semi-skilled workers entering Vietnam from Malaysia from that time onwards.[67] Between 2002 and 2003, the first wave of Vietnamese workers arrived in Malaysia to provide labour for its expanding manufacturing sector.[68] By 2003, there were 67,000 Vietnamese workers in Malaysia; both countries signed a memorandum of understanding exempting unskilled Vietnamese workers from needing a sufficient grasp of English or the Malay language to qualify for employment.[69] The number of Vietnamese work permit holders increased slightly to 80,000-90,000 by 2011; their presence later extended to other sectors including construction, housekeeping, agriculture and the service sector.[70] A few Vietnamese workers found employment in Chinese restaurants as waiters, and learnt to speak some Chinese as well.[71]

In 2015, Malaysia was the largest ASEAN's investor in Vietnam with total pledges of US$2.47 billion.[72] Malaysia and Vietnam have signed a joint statement on strategic partnership in economic matters along with a memorandum of understanding on joint patrol, hotline contact, search and rescue co-ordination, and piracy prevention in the South China Sea.[73][74]


與外國婦女通婚的馬來西亞男性為數不少,外籍配偶當中以越南婦女居多[75]。這種首見於1990年代的婚姻現象自2000年代起很受年紀較大的華族男性歡迎;當地漸趨繁盛的婚姻仲介業會以巡演、介紹等方式推銷越南新娘,供準新娘挑選。迎娶越南配偶的馬來西亞人指出,他們這樣做的動機包括:一、他們專注事業,無法與本地婦女交往,二、當地華人的文化與越南文化相似[76]。在這種婚姻當中,夫妻雙方要解決的問題不少,例如語言隔閡[77]、勒索[78]、以至於越南婦女拋棄丈夫,帶着混血子女回到越南的情況[79]。華社領袖张天赐(Michael Chong)認為越南新娘脫逃的關鍵原因是,她們離鄉別井,希望脫離貧困的生活,卻不能適應馬來西亞的生活和社會環境[80]




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