馬來西亞-越南關係

馬來西亞-越南關係
Malaysia和Vietnam在世界的位置

马来西亚

越南

馬來西亞-越南關係馬來語Hubungan Malaysia–Vietnam越南语Quan hệ Malaysia–Việt Nam)。兩國交往的歷史最早可以追溯到15世紀,而當代的馬來西亞政府則在1973年3月30日與當代的越南政府建交,截至2017年仍未中斷[1]。During the late 1970s and 1980s, the countries' relationship became strained as a result of the Cambodian–Vietnamese War and the influx of Vietnamese boat people into Malaysia. The subsequent resolution of these issues saw the cultivation of strong trade and economic ties, and bilateral trade between the countries grew strongly, with an expansion into areas including information technology, education and defence.

Vietnam and Malaysia share a maritime border in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea, and have overlapping claims in the Spratly Islands. Both have an embassy located in the other's capital; Vietnam has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate office in Ho Chi Minh City. Historical records show that Vietnamese people have visited states and Sultanates comprising modern-day Malaysia in small numbers since the 18th century, and Malaysia is currently home to a large Vietnamese expatriate community consisting of migrant workers, mail order brides and students, numbering around 100,000 people.[2] Vietnam also hosts a small Malaysian expatriate community, consisting mostly of businessmen based in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi.[3]

歷史

早期的接觸(15世紀-18世紀)

文獻記載,當今馬來西亞所屬的地區與越南的正式來往可以追溯到1469年(),當年滿剌加(今譯馬六甲)的使節向明廷納貢,卻在回國途中被安南後黎朝的官兵擄走,結果大部分使節遇害,年輕的則被閹割,淪為奴役。1481年()滿剌加再次遣使入貢,向明憲宗表明後黎朝企圖吞併滿剌加,明憲宗則要求滿剌加使節整備軍隊,準備防禦後黎朝的進攻[4][5]毛奇齡《蠻司合誌》的記載還指出,滿剌加曾經派兵前往老撾,擊退入侵的後黎朝官兵[6]。 The Malay Annals also mention a Cham prince taking some of his followers to form a small Cham colony in Malacca when Vietnam invaded Champa in 1471,[7] and deploying military assistance to Johor to fend off a botched military conquest in the 1590s.[8] In the mid 17th-century, the Cham vassal states Panduranga and Kelantan cultivated close diplomatic ties when they led a long-term diplomatic mission to Kelantan to learn more about Malay culture and Islam.[9] Subsequent Champa kings after Po Rome, beginning with his son Po Saut, periodically received Malay Muslim missionaries from Kelantan in the 17th and 18th centuries.[10]

英國殖民時期(18世紀-20世紀中期)

18世紀末英國人促成檳城開埠,不久之後就有越南帆船接受順化朝廷的指示,到訪檳城一帶,在這裏進行貿易。文獻記載,曾經有一艘運載甘蔗的阮朝商船在1790年代末期從治下的越南出發,途經檳城,以印度為目的地[11]。阮朝的士兵會把檳城稱為「檳榔嶼」(漢越詞),1810年的皇室文獻則把檳城稱為「劬勞槁」[12],意義與「檳榔嶼」相同。從1840年代起,包括思想家張永記在內的越南天主教徒便開始前往檳城,修讀神學[13]。當時來自南圻華人會航行到西南方的登嘉樓蘇丹國,售賣家禽和稻米,有的甚至會留下來,融入當地的華人社會[14]

胡志明曾經在1920年末、1930年代初協助馬來亞的共產主義者成立南洋共產黨(後來的馬來亞共產黨,即馬共),在這件事上發揮了關鍵的作用。他到過馬來亞幾次,曾經在1930年4月到柔佛巫羅加什主持馬來亞共產黨的成立典禮。同樣來自越南的萊特曾經在1934年至1938年期間獲選為馬共總書記,由此也可以看出胡志明對馬來亞共產黨的影響[15]。 萊特在1940年代末期失蹤,不過馬共和越南共產主義者的聯絡和合作關係並沒有因而中斷——當時馬共一度以海運的方式,協助越南獨立同盟會(越盟)接收輕武器。在第二次世界大战期間,越盟以及馬共籌建的馬來亞人民抗日軍都反對日軍入侵法屬印度支那馬來亞[16]。1954年越盟在奠邊府戰役獲勝,之後兩地共產黨幹部之間的聯繫就變得更加密切。越盟曾經在1950年代至1960年代期間向馬共提供小規模的物資援助、技術支援,還為馬共黨員提供培訓[17]

近代的官方交往(1959年-1975年)

馬來西亞-南越關係
Malaysia和South Vietnam在世界的位置

马来西亚

南越

越南共和國(南越)政府在1957年馬來亞聯合邦獨立後予以承認,兩國之間的關係也在此時展開[18]。此後馬來西亞便開始援助南越政府,協助它們與越共游擊隊北越軍作戰[19]。馬來亞首相東姑阿都拉曼在1958年首次訪問南越,南越總統吳廷琰也先後在1958年1月和1961年10月回訪馬來西亞[18][20]。馬來亞在1963年與位於婆羅洲沙巴砂拉越合組馬來西亞,這時吉隆坡政府擔心,按照骨牌理論越南民主共和國(北越)共產主義者的影響可能對馬來西亞的存亡構成威脅,而且馬來西亞也經歷過共黨叛亂,所以他們改變立場,大力支持美國介入越南戰爭。東姑拉曼在1966年12月表達這些憂慮,並呼籲美、英兩國為越南的戰事提供更多的後勤支援[21]。馬來西亞曾為南越官員開設訓練班,教授公共行政技能、游擊戰戰術;並向南越提供電單車,旨在增加南越警隊的實力,以及南越軍後勤補給的能力[22]。馬來西亞在1975年越戰臨近尾聲之際分兩階段停止駐南越使館的運作:首先在4月12日撤走使館人員,然後在16天後(西貢易幟前兩天)正式閉館[23]。1975年5月短命政權南越南共和國臨時革命政府成立,馬來西亞隨即予以承認,並表示大馬不會偏向任何一種政治思想和社會體制[24]

北越在1973年簽署巴黎和平協約,隨後在當年3月31日與馬來西亞建立大使級外交關係[25]。兩國在1975年議妥互派大使的安排,並於翌年互設大使館——馬來西亞駐越大使館在1976年開館,越南駐馬來西亞大使館則在同年5月29日開館[26]。馬來西亞在1970年代中、後期向越南施壓,希望對方接受和平自由中立區的構想,不過越南認為這是一項反共圍堵政策,令兩國關係陷於緊張[27]。馬來西亞首相胡先翁在1977年8月參加雙邊峰會,承諾會提供經濟、技術援助,協助越南重建百廢待興的經濟體系[28]。1979年越南入侵柬埔寨,同時不少越南難民開始到馬來西亞逃難,直至1980年代為止;這股難民潮為馬來西亞帶來的問題包括經濟問題和國安問題(特別是種族勢力的問題,因為越南難民很像華人)[27][29]

越南船民問題(1975年-2005年)

The jetty of Pulau Bidong refugee camp taken in 1985, where up to 10,000 refugees maybe housed at any point of time. Pulau Bidong's refugee camp was later closed in 1991.

In May 1975, shortly after the Fall of Saigon at the end of the Vietnam War, the first Vietnamese refugees arrived in Malaysia, and the first boat that arrived carried 47 refugees.[30] Until 1978, more Vietnamese fled their country, and many of them were of Chinese descent. According to Malaysian government statistics, the country hosted 19,000 refugees in November 1978, compared to 500 in 1977.[31] The Malaysian government responded by directing its Home Ministry to set up Federal Task Force VII in 1978, which was tasked with limiting the rising number of refugees from landing in Malaysia.[32] The press reported incidents of Malaysian police and army personnel turning away the refugees, but some refugees resorted to deliberately sinking their boats to gain admittance to Malaysia.[33] When the government was informed of boat-sinking attempts made by the refugees, then Deputy Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad announced in June 1979 that legislation would be introduced to empower the police and navy to shoot refugees attempting to land.[34] Mahathir's superior, Prime Minister Hussein Onn quickly recanted Mahathir's shooting threat.[35]

The first Vietnamese refugee camp was opened in Pulau Bidong in August 1978 with United Nations assistance; the island accommodated up to 25,000 refugees. Other refugee camps were set up at Pulau Tengah, Pulau Besar, Kota Bharu, Kuantan, Sarawak and Sabah. In 1982, a transit centre was established at Sungei Besi, where refugees awaiting deportation to Western countries that were willing to accept them would be housed.[36] The number of Vietnamese refugee arrivals fluctuated between 1981 and 1983,[37] before a period of significant decrease from 1984 to 1986.[38] In 1987, Malaysia and other neighbouring countries saw a sudden increase in the number of Vietnamese refugees landing in Malaysia. At an ASEAN summit in June 1987, member countries chastised the Vietnamese government for not having sufficiently addressed the refugee problem.[39]

In August 1988, Malaysia and Vietnam jointly proposed an involuntary repatriation agreement, which provided for Vietnamese refugees that failed to gain admittance to Western countries to be counselled to return to Vietnam.[40] A few Vietnamese government delegations were deployed to conduct outreach sessions at some of the refugee camps.[41] This arrangement was considered unsuccessful because less than 40 individuals registered for the voluntary repatriation programme between 1988 and 1989.[42][43] A deadline was set for 14 March 1989, whereby all Vietnamese who arrived before that date would automatically be considered refugees and all refugees arriving after that date would undergo a screening process to assess whether they qualified for refugee status.[44] The screening process was proposed by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in June 1988; it involved thorough background checks on arrivals to determine whether they qualify for refugee status to be sent to any Western countries that were willing to accept them.[43] Within 10 months, 4,000 of 9,000 refugees were sent to Western countries. In the same period, an additional 11,000 refuges arrived in Malaysia.[42]

The implementation of stringent rules that require Vietnamese arrivals to qualify for refugee status prompted some of them to opt for the voluntary repatriation programme; between 1,000 and 2,000 arrivals to Malaysia returned to Vietnam in 1989.[44] Refugees who opted to return to Vietnam were provided with a monthly stipend for up to one year by the UNHCR. In the early 1990s, as Vietnam began to experience economic growth, the number of refugee arrivals to Malaysia dropped. Joint collaborations between Malaysia, Vietnam and UNHCR to address the problem enabled Malaysia to reduce the size of its Vietnamese refugee populace, facilitating the closure of the Pulau Bidong refugee camp in November 1991. 3,000 Vietnamese refugees participated in the voluntary repatriation programme,[45][46] and Malaysia's refugee populace reduced to 6,000 by 1994.[47] Most of the remaining arrivals were not able to pass the UNHCR screening process and were classified as illegal immigrants. The majority of them expressed their reluctance to be repatriated to Vietnam; demonstrations and rioting broke out when news of the camp's impending closure was announced in 1995. Sungei Besi refugee camp was later closed in June 1996.[48] The last refugees returned to Vietnam in 2005.[30]

逐漸恢復的雙邊關係(1988年-)

越南在1988年宣布從柬埔寨撤兵,馬越關係也在同時開始恢復[27]。兩國政府高層在1990年代初多次互訪,舉行多次雙邊峰會,簽訂多項倡議經濟合作、經濟建設的協議[49]。馬來西亞駐胡志明市領事處在1991年1月開館,由此也可以看出兩國關係的改善[50]。兩國經濟關係日益密切之際,越南在1994年表示有意加入東南亞國家聯盟(東盟),並在馬來西亞的支持下[51]於1995年加入東盟,馬來西亞熱烈歡迎[52]

1990年代馬越關係的特徵是雙邊貿易和經濟合作的推展;自2000年起,兩國也開始在其他領域合作[53]。當年越南和馬來西亞簽訂協議,促進兩國執法機關合作,打擊跨國販毒活動[54]。兩國又於2004年簽訂綜合合作協議以及兩份諒解備忘錄,涉及的領域包括資訊科技、教育交流等各方面[55]。兩國又在2008年簽訂諒解備忘錄,開始在國防領域合作;根據備忘錄,兩國軍隊將舉行聯合軍訓,並開展軍事工業合作。兩國海軍也會阻止越南漁民越界前往馬來西亞海域捕魚,並控制海盜活動[56]

使領館

自1976年開館以來,馬來西亞駐越南大使館先後三度搬遷。第一代館址位於統一酒店(後改名為河内大都市索菲特传奇酒店),至1983年遷出;第二代館址位於萬福使館區,至1984年遷出;第三代館址位於位於河内富都大酒店(Fortuna Hotel Hanoi),至2004年遷出。自2004年起,大使館開始在奠邊府街43-45號辦公。此外,馬來西亞駐胡志明市領事處在1991年開館,一年後升格為總領事館[50]

越南駐馬來西亞大使館館舍位於史顿诺路(Persiaran Stonor)4號,在1976年開館,前身是南越駐馬來西亞大使館,後由越南政府購入[57]。大使館的勞工處和武官處在2000年代成立,分開兩處辦公[58]。越南大使館在2013年2月購入布城15區一幅佔地0.69公頃(2英畝)的土地,用以興建新館舍,取代原有的館舍[59]

經貿往來

越南客工在霹靂太平一所宿舍享用午膳

Bilateral trade between Malaysia and Vietnam stood at 2.2 million美元 following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.[60] Within the first three years after the war, Malaysia proposed to extend economic and technical assistance to Vietnam's oil palm and rubber industries. Malaysia exported zinc to Vietnam and signed a contract that would facilitate the import of Vietnamese vegetables into Malaysia. These early co-operations and proposals ended following Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979. Economic co-operation slowly resumed from 1988, when bilateral trade between the countries stood at $50 million.[27] In 1990, bilateral trade increased to $140 million and to $235 million in 1991. Around this time, Malaysian businessmen began to open hotels in Vung Tau to cater to its flourishing tourism industry.[61] At a bilateral summit in 1992, both countries agreed on the idea of joint oil and gas exploration; Vietnam has a sizeable number of oil fields in the South China Sea.[62]

Around this time, Malaysian statuory boards and government-linked companies including Bank Negara, MIDAS and Petronas started to provide technical assistance programmes to Vietnam.[63] Vietnam also sought Malaysia's assistance to develop its banking sector; Malaysia's Public Bank formed joint ventures with VID bank (later BIDV bank) to open branches in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City between 1993 and 1994.[49] By 1994, Malaysia became ASEAN's second largest investor in Vietnam. Exports from Vietnam to Malaysia mainly consisted of rice, rubber, oil seeds and machinery, while Malaysia exported machinery, equipment and chemicals mainly derived from the former's economic assistance to the country.[49] Malaysian businessmen were responsible for the development of the An Don Export Processing Zone beginning in 1994 in Danang.[64] At an APEC meeting in 1994, Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad spoke of the belief that Malaysia did not need to be totally self-reliant in food, and expressed his interest in procuring some food from Vietnam as a means of strengthening economic ties.[65] Two years later, Malaysian-made Proton Wira cars were first sold in Vietnam.[66]

A joint commission meeting between the countries in 1996 brought skilled and semi-skilled workers entering Vietnam from Malaysia from that time onwards.[67] Between 2002 and 2003, the first wave of Vietnamese workers arrived in Malaysia to provide labour for its expanding manufacturing sector.[68] By 2003, there were 67,000 Vietnamese workers in Malaysia; both countries signed a memorandum of understanding exempting unskilled Vietnamese workers from needing a sufficient grasp of English or the Malay language to qualify for employment.[69] The number of Vietnamese work permit holders increased slightly to 80,000-90,000 by 2011; their presence later extended to other sectors including construction, housekeeping, agriculture and the service sector.[70] A few Vietnamese workers found employment in Chinese restaurants as waiters, and learnt to speak some Chinese as well.[71]

In 2015, Malaysia was the largest ASEAN's investor in Vietnam with total pledges of US$2.47 billion.[72] Malaysia and Vietnam have signed a joint statement on strategic partnership in economic matters along with a memorandum of understanding on joint patrol, hotline contact, search and rescue co-ordination, and piracy prevention in the South China Sea.[73][74]

民間交往

與外國婦女通婚的馬來西亞男性為數不少,外籍配偶當中以越南婦女居多[75]。這種首見於1990年代的婚姻現象自2000年代起很受年紀較大的華族男性歡迎;當地漸趨繁盛的婚姻仲介業會以巡演、介紹等方式推銷越南新娘,供準新娘挑選。迎娶越南配偶的馬來西亞人指出,他們這樣做的動機包括:一、他們專注事業,無法與本地婦女交往,二、當地華人的文化與越南文化相似[76]。在這種婚姻當中,夫妻雙方要解決的問題不少,例如語言隔閡[77]、勒索[78]、以至於越南婦女拋棄丈夫,帶着混血子女回到越南的情況[79]。華社領袖张天赐(Michael Chong)認為越南新娘脫逃的關鍵原因是,她們離鄉別井,希望脫離貧困的生活,卻不能適應馬來西亞的生活和社會環境[80]

在馬來西亞定居的越南公民約有10萬人,多數集中在馬來西亞半島檳城、森美蘭[81]雪蘭莪、柔佛[82]各州的工業重鎮。越南客工經常被僱主虐待——住在擠迫的宿舍,被僱主剋扣薪金,還在工作期間遭到虐打[83][84]。馬來西亞好一部分罪案(例如劫案、強姦案、謀殺案、賣淫案)都跟越南人有關;馬來西亞前全國警察總長慕沙哈山曾經在2008年指出大馬警方當年處理了超過200宗涉及越南人社群的罪案[2]。在當地的賣淫場所裏,越南婦女還是比較常見的[85];馬來西亞顧客認為她們身材誘人,熱情好客,頗受顧客歡迎[86]。報導指出,有的越南妓女為了投身賣淫業,會偽造學生證,或者與本地男性假結婚[87];也有不少越南妓女被職業中介人矇騙,本來中介人承諾她們可以當侍應生、當工廠工人,卻把她們騙到賣淫場所[88]

參見

腳註

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  19. ^ Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia’s Foreign Ministers) (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia): 31. 2008 [17 October 2015]. ISBN 978-983-2220-26-8. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于16 October 2015). The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya’s partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that “we had clandestinely been giving ‘aid’ to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: “over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)”. It is undeniable that the Government’s policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku’s valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint. 
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